Enhancing Secondary School Students’ Retention in Geography through Physical and Virtual Laboratories in North Central Nigeria

  • Usman, Hussaini
  • Emmanuel, Joy Ojonogecha
  • Usman, Zaliha Ndatsu
  • Abubakar, Husseni
Keywords: geography, lecture method, physical laboratory, virtual laboratory, retention


This study investigated the effects of Physical and Virtual Laboratories on the Retention of secondary school students towards Geography in North Central Nigeria. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. The sample size of the research consisted of 768 students from 12 secondary schools in the North Central zone of Nigeria. Four secondary schools from each of the three sampled states in the zone were purposively chosen and randomly assigned to research groups: experimental group I (Physical Laboratory), experimental group II (Virtual Laboratory), and control group (Lecture Method). One instrument used for collecting data in this study and its titled Geography Achievement Test (GAT). It is a 30 – item instrument covering topics in Physical Geography, a Pearson product-moment correlation formula was used to determine the reliability coefficient of GAT which yielded 0.76. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of Mean and Standard Deviation and inferential statistics of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study revealed that physical and virtual laboratories enhanced secondary school students’ retention towards geography better than lecture method and it was therefore recommended that these laboratories should be embraced as teaching strategies for teaching geography concepts in secondary schools in order to improve students’ retention towards the subject.


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Author Biographies

Usman, Hussaini

Niger State Teacher Professional Development Institute Minna, Niger State.

Emmanuel, Joy Ojonogecha

Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State.

Usman, Zaliha Ndatsu

Niger State College of Education, Minna, Niger State.

Abubakar, Husseni

School of Health Technology, Minna, Niger State.


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How to Cite
Hussaini, U., Ojonogecha, E. J., Ndatsu, U. Z., & Husseni, A. (2021). Enhancing Secondary School Students’ Retention in Geography through Physical and Virtual Laboratories in North Central Nigeria. GPH-International Journal of Educational Research, 4(02), 76-90. Retrieved from https://gphjournal.org/index.php/er/article/view/379