• AYIRE VITALIS NGOH Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Buea Cameroon
Keywords: Spiritual Intelligence, Transformational Leadership, Critical Existential Thinking, Secondary School


This study examined the relationship between Critical Existential Thinking (CET) and School Transformational Leadership in Secondary Schools in Fako Division. A convergent mixed research design was used where both qualitative and quantitative research methods were taken into consideration and data were taken at same time, analyzed and results were compared. The population for the study consisted of 3698 teachers, 54471 students and 2510 school administrators drawn from 123 secondary schools in Fako Division. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting the different school types as well as the class. Using the random sampling technique, a sample of 299 teachers, 75 school administrators and 30 students were drawn from 37 schools that took part in the study. The instruments used for data collection were the Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI-24), an interview guide for students and a questionnaire for teachers which were validated by researcher’s peers and other experts. Cronbach’s Alpha Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the overall reliability analysis coefficient of the instruments and was projected to be 0.912 and 0.867 for principal’s perspective, and 0.857 for teacher’s perspective. The data collected were analyzed using frequency, proportion, multiple response analysis and binary logistic regression model to test the hypotheses at P≤ .05 level of significance. Descriptively, analysis showed that critical existential thinking (CET) significantly predicts transformational leadership (p-value =0.001< 0.05) but the relationship was low as indicated by a predictive power value of 27.0% (Cox & Snell R Square). In overall, principal’s spiritual intelligence significantly predicts transformational leadership (P=0.029; EP=40.4%). The predictive effect was significant on the overall conceptual component and sub-conceptual component (P<0.05). The effect was the highest on intellectual stimulation followed by inspirational motivation. Based on the findings, it was recommended that teachers and administrators should practice meditation which helps to train the mind, making their body calm, shifting them towards mental clarity. When one meditates, you focus better on an object/subject thereby redirecting thoughts, makes the individual spiritual powerful and strong and having greater spiritual strength will enable you to comprehend the bigger picture more precisely and consciously. the teachers and administrators should be able to know and recognize what they believe in, value and what really motivates them.


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