Enhancing Secondary School Students’ Retention in Geography through Physical and Virtual Laboratories in North Central Nigeria
This study investigated the effects of Physical and Virtual Laboratories on the Retention of secondary school students towards Geography in North Central Nigeria. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. The sample size of the research consisted of 768 students from 12 secondary schools in the North Central zone of Nigeria. Four secondary schools from each of the three sampled states in the zone were purposively chosen and randomly assigned to research groups: experimental group I (Physical Laboratory), experimental group II (Virtual Laboratory), and control group (Lecture Method). One instrument used for collecting data in this study and its titled Geography Achievement Test (GAT). It is a 30 – item instrument covering topics in Physical Geography, a Pearson product-moment correlation formula was used to determine the reliability coefficient of GAT which yielded 0.76. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of Mean and Standard Deviation and inferential statistics of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study revealed that physical and virtual laboratories enhanced secondary school students’ retention towards geography better than lecture method and it was therefore recommended that these laboratories should be embraced as teaching strategies for teaching geography concepts in secondary schools in order to improve students’ retention towards the subject.
Asthan, A. (2012). Multimedia in education: Introduction, the element of Educational requirements, classroom Architecture and Resources, Concerns. Retrieved from
Chaurura, P. Chuma, K. (2015) Virtual Laboratories- a Solution for Tertiary Science Education In Botswana European Journal of Logistics Purchasing and Supply Chain Management Vol.3, No.1, pp.29- Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK
Eze, E.(2020) Sociographic analysis of climate change awareness and pro-environmental behavior of secondary school teachers and students in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 29:1, 89-105, DOI: 10.1080/10382046.2019.1657683
Falode, O. C. (2014). A BATES‟ ACTIONS‟ evaluation of virtual physics laboratory package for senior secondary school students in Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Department of Educational Technology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
Falode, O. C. Usman, H. Sobowale, F. M. Folarin, M. E & Saliu R. M. (2015) Effect of Computer Simulation Instructional Package On Secondary School Geography Students’ Achievement In Map Reading In Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 3rd annual international conference of school of science and technology education, federal university of technology minna pp.73-80.
Falode, O. C. Usman, H. Ilobeneke S. C, Mohammed H. A, Godwin A. J, Jimoh M. A. (2016) Improving Secondary School Geography Students’ Retention towards Map Reading In Bida, Niger State, Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy 10(1), 149-150
Federal Republic of Nigeria, (2009). National Policy on Education. Lagos: Federal Government Press.
Ho, W. C. (2009). The Role of Multimedia Technology in a Hong Kong Higher Education Music Program Visions of Research in MUSIC Education, 13. Retrieve fromhtpp://www.usr.rider.edu/~vrme/htpp://learningtechnology.wikispaces.com/(2012) Multimedia Elements and use 246.
Ma, X. & Kishor, N. (1997). Assessing the relationship between retention toward mathematics and achievement in mathematics: a meta-analysis. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(1), 26–47.
Mohammed, H. A. (2017). Effects of Computer Simulation Instructional Package on primary school pupils‟ motor skills development and interest towards physical education in Niger state, Nigeria. Unpublished Phd Thesis. Department of Educational Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.
National Examination Council, (2009 & 2010). June/July. Chief Examiner’s Report. Lagos.
Ratamun, M. M. Osman. K. (2018) The Effectiveness comparison of virtual laboratory and physical laboratory in nurturing students’ retention towards chemistry. Creative Education, 9, 1411-1425. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2018.9910
Russel, A. &Weaver, R. (2008). Student Perception of the Purpose and Function of the Laboratory in Science: A Grounded Theory Study. internation journal of scholarship of teaching and learning, 4 (2), 25-26
Sofowora, O. A. & Egbedokun, A. (2010). An Empirical Survey of Technology Application in Teaching Geography in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management 3 (1), 67-68.
Usman, H. Alabi, T. O. Falode O. C. & Muhammed B. Y (2019). Effects of Physical and Virtual Laboratories on the Achievement of Secondary School Geography Students in North Central Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Educational Research, 2 (2), 3
West African Examination Council, (2008;2010;2013;2018). June/July. Analysis of performance of candidate in Geography result. Lagos.
West African Examination Council, (2008;2009;2011;2012). June/July. Analysis of performance of candidate in Geography result. Lagos.
Copyright (c) 2021 IJER-International Journal of Educational Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Author(s) and co-author(s) jointly and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published elsewhere. Author(s) agree to the terms that the GPH Journal will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.