The Characterization of Heavy Mineral Composition in Some Soils Representing Clay Plains of the Sudan

  • Philip Wani Marchelo-d’ Ragga
  • Pio Kur Deng
Keywords: Soil type, heavy mineralogy, maturity index, clay plains, Sudan


The current study has been conducted in seven soil profiles in clay plains of the Sudan, sites were selected in a transect from East of Rahad River, across Gezira, West of the White Nile and Malakal. The objectives of this study were to characterize the heavy mineralogical composition of thee soils according to genetic horizons. The heavy minerals of sand fraction of these soil samples were separated and identified using a petrography microscope. The results for textural class showed that the studied samples belong clay with the higher clay content (>40%). A petrography microscope of heavy minerals indicates the presence of Zircon, Andalusite, Silimanite, Kyanite, Staurolite, Rutile, Garnet, Epidote, Hormblende and Tourmaline. The variations in the percentages of these minerals throughout the soils depth and the distance between the White Nile, Blue Nile and Rahad River indicate multi sedimentation regimes. The heavy minerals are dominated by Staurolite, followed by Rutile and Epidote. All samples comprised a heterogeneous population of zircon and rutile grains with diverse physico-chemical properties, expressed by large differences in colour. White Nile soils (W-2) had higher maturity Index (ZTR, 28.0-38.2%) followed by Rahad soil (R-2), (ZTR, 22.0-36.4%) and Malakal soil (M-1) (ZTR, 16.1-29.5%). The characteristics between and among the studied profiles even in the coupled –sites, indicate variances incorporated in sedimentation with effects of the location from the sandstone during transportation and precipitation.


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Author Biographies

Philip Wani Marchelo-d’ Ragga

Department of Agricultural Sciences, School of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, (SNRES)University of Juba, P.O. Box 82 Juba, South Sudan

Pio Kur Deng

Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Upper Nile University, Juba, South Sudan


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How to Cite
Ragga, P. W. M.- d’, & Deng, P. K. (2019). The Characterization of Heavy Mineral Composition in Some Soils Representing Clay Plains of the Sudan. GPH-International Journal of Agriculture and Research, 2(02), 01-18. Retrieved from