GPH-International Journal of Agriculture and Research <p style="font-family: Aptos;"><strong>The scope of GPH - International Journal of Agriculture &amp; Research is not limited to the following subject areas: Agronomy, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, food science and technology, Plant Science, Fertilizers and pesticides, Genetic Engineering &amp; plant breeding, Animal science veterinary Science, Aquaculture/Fisheries, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural machinery, Post Harvest and Quality, Agricultural development, Agricultural Economics, Rural Development, Sustainable Agriculture, Organic agriculture, Soil Conservation, Soil Science, Rainwater harvesting and crop water management, Crop Genetics &amp; Breeding, Tillage &amp; Cultivation Agricultural products – Raw Materials, Foods, Fibers, Fuels, Irrigation, Soil &amp; Fertilization.<span style="font-size: medium;"><a title="Journal Impact Factor" href=""><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: 'Book Antiqua', serif;"><span style="helvetica: Arial, serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: 1.5em;"><span style="text-shadow: #FF0000 0px 0px 2px;">Impact Factor: 1.877</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></strong></p> en-US <p>Author(s) and co-author(s)&nbsp;jointly&nbsp;and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any&nbsp;copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published&nbsp;elsewhere.&nbsp;Author(s) agree to the terms that the <strong>GPH Journal</strong> will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.</p> (Dr. EKEKE, JOHN NDUBUEZE) (Dossa Kossivi Fabrice) Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Evaluating Teratogenic Effects: Examination of the Impact of TCDD on Craniofacial Characteristics and Body Measurements of Isa Brown Chicken Embryos Under Controlled Experimental Conditions <p><strong>2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, sometimes referred to as TCDD is a chemical molecule that is generated via the process of burning. It poses a significant threat to both people and animals due to its toxic effects. The potential adverse effects include dermatological injury, immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity, increased risk of cancer, harm to the developing fetus, reproductive disorders, disruption of development processes, neurobehavioral impairments, and particular endocrine disturbances. Furthermore, this chemical has the capacity to influence the process of embryonic development and increase the rates of embryonic mortality. This study aims to investigate the teratogenic impacts of TCDD injection on the head diameter, head shape, body length, and overall body size of Isa brown embryos. The study consisted of three treatment groups: a control group that did not receive any additional TCDD in corn oil, a placebo group that got 5 µL of corn oil, and a treatment group that received five ng/egg of TCDD dissolved in 5 µL of corn oil. The interventions were administered for a duration of seven days. The statistical analysis revealed that the teratogenic effect of TCDD had a substantial impact on the development of thorax circumference, but it did not affect head diameter, head circumference, overall body size, and body length.</strong></p> Herlina Pratiwi, AEP Haskito, Ani Setianingrum, Muhammad Aviv Firdaus, Adelia Nur Arisanti, Alfyanda Faerza, Chanif Mahdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 KNOWLEDGE AND ADOPTION OF PRECISION AGRICULTURE AMONG OIL PALM SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA <p><strong>Precision Agriculture (PA) deals with the fine-tuned management of crop inputs including seeds, fertilizers, water, pesticides and energy inorder to create savings on these inputs, increase yield, augment profitability and protect the environment. This study was carried out with the aim of knowing the level of awareness of precision agriculture and the various factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture by oil palm smallholder farmers in Essien Udim rural communities. Eighty respondents were interviewed. The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis such as frequency, percentage, mean and likert scale. The outcome of the study showed that most of the farmers were aware of precision agriculture because most of them had formal education. This means that the level of education of oil palm smallholder farmers could result to a high rate of agricultural technology adoption. </strong><br><strong>On the constraints to the adoption of precision agriculture, the study revealed that lack of capital, information, facilities and low technical knowhow were the major constraints identified by the farmers. </strong><br><strong>Since capital, information, facilities and technical knowhow were the major constraints, the availability of capital and agricultural information devices such as radio and mobile phones would help farmers to make informed decisions about what crops to sow or transplant and where to purchase affordable crop inputs and the market to sell their produce.</strong></p> Obot Akaninyene P., Okechukwu Frances O., Eze MaryAnn O., Obot Elizabeth A., Udoh Mfon ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 04 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Bellucia pentamera, Naudin., in South Sumatra: Up Date of Distribution Data and Insect Host Role <p><strong>Distribution data of <em>B pentamera</em>, had been published, and it is found in Palembang, Ogan Ilir, Muara Enim and Pali residences. This month, December 2023, distribution data of this plant be up date by tracking the last samples and find the new trees. Survey, literature study and citizen information are collected and analysed in this article. Two trees, close to SMA 1 Indralaya , Ogan Ilir, and the other one, at Talang Taling roadside, Muara Enim, have died, no more trunk, may be are cut by the owners. But it is found 6 trees in Sigam, Muara Enim,; 4 trees at Bitis, Muara Enim; 2 trees at Indralaya, Ogan Ilir; some trees at Tanjung Baru village, Northern Lampung, some trees at Hutan Harapan, Jambi, &nbsp;some trees at Lais, Musi Banyuasin, some trees at Sungai Lilin,Musi Banyuasin, a tree at Green Paradise Hotel Park, Pagar Alam; at last at Lubuk Bintialo and Pangkalan Bulian villages, Musi Banyuasin, as published by a research institute.&nbsp; Investigation on the insects that use <em>B pentamera</em>as their host, found four species namely <em>Delichoderus thoracicus</em> (small black ant), <em>Xylocopa sp</em> (carpenter bee) and <em>Oecophylla smaragdina</em> (Asian weaver ant) and <em>Melanoplus diffrentialis</em> (spotted legs grasshopper).</strong></p> Hanifa Marisa, Solfiyeni . ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 09 Jan 2024 07:40:57 +0000 GROWTH AND YIELD OF CAYENNE PEPPER PLANTS (Capsicum frutescens l.) ON BOKASHI PLANTING MEDIA AND SOIL MIXTURE WITH BURNT HUSK <p><strong>Cayenne pepper (<em>Capsicum frutescens</em> L.) is an important vegetable, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Bokashi is an organic fertilizer produced by fermenting organic materials with the help of EM4. This is a mixed culture of various types of beneficial microorganisms, namely lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, <em>Actinomycetes</em>, <em>Streptomycetes</em> sp., and yeast. Bokashi application is very useful for improving soil properties, both physical, chemical, and biological.This research aims to determine the effect of bokashi fertilizer doses on the growth and production of cayenne pepperand determine the right dosage for the growth and yield of cayenne pepper plants. (<em>Capsicum frutescens</em> L.). This research was carried out by Sambaliung District, from February to May 2021.</strong><strong>The research used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor, namely the dose of bokashi fertilizer (P) with 10 replications, namely: P0 = 0% bokashi and 100% soil mixture with burnt husks; P1 = 25% bokashi and 75% soil mixture with burnt husks; P2 = 50% bokashi and 50% mixture of soil and roasted husks; and P3 = 75% bokashi and 25% soil mixture with burnt husks. </strong><strong>Data analysis uses a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and if there is a significant difference then it will be continued with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at a rate of 5%. The results showed that the doses of bokashi and roasted husks were not significantly different when observing the number of leaves in the first week, number of productive branches, number of fruit per plant, production, flowering time, maturity, and fruit length. P3 treatment gave the highest results, namely 337 g plant<sup>-1</sup>.</strong></p> A. Syamad Ramayana, . Sulaminingsih, . Suwarno; . Setyawan; . Kaisal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 APPLICATION OF BIOSENSORS IN FISHERIES: A REVIEW ON REAL-TIME QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING FOR SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION <p><strong>This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the potential and utilization of cassava peel as a fish feeding redient. Agro-industrial activities in Indonesia generate substantial waste, including cassavapeel, which can serve as avaluable carbohydrate source in fish feed. Cassava is the third most important food crop commodity in Indonesia, and its productivity has been increasing over the years. Cassava possesses a good nutritional profile, with high starch content and energy value. Fermentation of cassava peel can enhance its nutritional value by increasing crude protein content and reducing anti-nutrients such as cyanide acid. Fermented cassava peel products have been shown to reduce reliance on imported feed ingredients and lower production costs without compromising fish growth. The utilization of fermented cassava peel waste presents a sustainable solution for converting agro-industrial waste into a suitable fish feed ingredient.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> Fittrie Meyllianawaty Pratiwy, Yuli Andriani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 06 Feb 2024 12:16:55 +0000 Effects of substrate and mycorrhizal inoculum on stem segment cuttings of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae) in the Guinean savannah highlands of Cameroon <p><strong><em>Pterocarpus erinaceus</em></strong><strong> Poir is a woody species of the Sudano-Guinean to Sudano-Sahelian zones with very high food, medicinal and commercial potential leading to the overexploitation. This study aimed to contribute to the domestication of this species using stem segment cuttings. The sand/sawdust and black soil/sawdust substrates were inoculated with 0.10, and 20 g of mycorrhizae. The split plot with 4 repetitions was used as the experimental method and set at 10 cuttings per unit. The experience revealed that the appropriate substrate and dose of mycorrhizae for the budding of stem segment cuttings (SSC) were the sand/sawdust mixture (25.00 ± 18.34 %) and 10 g (23.75 ± 5.63 %) respectively. Satisfactory result was recorded in 10 g (4.18 ± 2.52 cm) dose of mycorrhizae for the height of the aerial axes with abundant number of leaves per aerial observed in the sand/sawdust substrate (2.36 ± 0.48). Concerning the rooting ability of the cuttings, adequate substrate for the number of newly formed roots is the sand/sawdust mixture (25.00 ± 18.34 %) while the dose of 10 g of mycorrhizae favoured the appearance of roots (23.75 ± 14.07 %). The best substrate for the length of newly formed roots is the sand/sawdust mixture (10.64 ± 7.14 cm) and 10 g of mycorrhizae improved the length (9.82 ± 6.40 cm) for Senegal rosewood. Given the above results, we can admit that the improvement of certain parameters (budding, rooting) in P. erinaceus is possible by vegetative propagation.</strong></p> Abdoulaye Herbert, Oumarou H. Z., Fawa G., Essouman E.P.F., Abubakar A.S., Wangbitching J.D., Binwe J-B., Megueni C., Mapongmetsem P. M. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 03 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFECT OF A COMBINATION OF SOIL IMPROVEMENT AND N, P, K FERTILIZER ON K-POTENTIAL, K-dd, K-UPTAKE, AND YIELD OF LOWLAND RICE (Oryza sativa L.) IN INCEPTISOLS FROM JATINANGOR <p><strong>Low fertility is one of the issues in Inceptisols. One solution to solve this issue by provide a combination of soil conditioners containing organic matter and N, P, and K fertilizers as available nutrient elements to optimize soil fertility, thus improving the quality and quantity of rice. This experiment aims to determine the best dosage of the combination of soil improvement and N, P, and K fertilizers for K-potential, K-uptake, and rice crop results on Inceptisols from Jatinangor. The experiment was conducted from July to December 2023 at the Soil Chemistry and Plant Nutrition Laboratory Experiment Garden, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Sumedang. The research design used was&nbsp; Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) consisting of eight treatments and four replications, namely: control; N, P, K dose recommendation; soil improver; ½ soil improver+ ¾ dose of N, P, K; ¾ soil improver+ ¾ dose of N, P, K; 1 soil improver+ ¾ dose of N, P, K; 1½ soil improver+ ¾ dose of N, P, K; and 1 soil improver+ 1 dose of N, P, K. The results of the experiment indicate that the treatment of 1½ soil improver+ ¾ dose of N, P, K can provide the best influence in increasing K-potential content, K-dd, K-uptake, and rice crop result (number of grains per panicle, 100-grain weight, and milled rice weight) in Inceptisols from Jatinangor.</strong></p> Anni Yuniarti, Emma Trinurani Sofyan, Muhammad Farhan Nashrullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 09 Feb 2024 15:49:46 +0000 The Effect of a Combination of Soil Improvers and N, P, K Fertilizers on P-Potential, P-Available, P Uptake, and Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Yield in Inceptisols Soil from Jatinangor <p><strong>Inceptisols are an order of soil that has great potential to be used as productive land for rice cultivation because of its wide distribution in Indonesia. However, this land order has low soil fertility so it is necessary to fertilize to increase soil fertility. Balanced fertilization with soil improvers and N, P, and K fertilizers can be applied to increase fertilization efficiency. This experiment aims to obtain the dose of soil improver and N, P, K fertilizer that has the best effect on P-potential, P-available, P-uptake, and rice yield. The experiment was carried out from July to December 2023 at the Soil Chemistry and Plant Nutrition Laboratory Experimental Garden, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Sumedang. The experimental design used was a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with seven treatments and four replications consisting of control; N, P, K recommendations; soil improver; ½ soil + ¾ dose of N, P, K; ¾ soil improver + ¾ dose of N, P, K; 1 soil improver + ¾ dose of N, P, K; 1 ½ soil improver + ¾ dose of N, P, K; 1 soil improver + 1 dose of N, P, K. One dose of soil improver is 8000 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, while one dose of N, P, K fertilizer is 350 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> Urea, 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> SP-36, and 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> KCl. The experimental results showed that the treatment of 1 ½ soil improver + ¾ dose of N, P, K was the best treatment for increasing the weight of 100 grains.</strong></p> Emma Trinurani Sofyan, Rija Sudirja, Khairumam Alfi Syahrin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 09 Feb 2024 16:32:42 +0000 Effectiveness of Difference Soil and Manure Mixture on Growth and Yield of Bak Choy Planted in Bags <p><strong>The study of soil groups, soil types, and soil characteristics is very important for the cultivation of crops in Cambodia. Selecting soil types that are not suitable for the type of crop will result in poor crop growth, slowness, and low yields. In the same way that the cultivation of crops in the production of vegetable crops is the same, that is, choosing the type of soil that is suitable for the crop is a point to consider and pay attention to. Due to some geographical areas in some communes, the topography is sandy or rocky, and the soil is hard, making it difficult for farmers to prepare parallel cultivable land where some people have less land and try to cultivate it using plastic buckets. Cement or bags to grow as a vegetable or grow to get some yield just to meet daily food needs; avoid spending money to buy vegetables from the market. Bak Choy is a crop that can grow on almost any type of soil, especially alluvial soils. It also has many benefits for the body, such as strengthening bones, the immune system, cancer cells, and so on. However, the cultivation of kale also encounters a number of problems, such as poor growth, low yields, pests, and diseases, especially the technique of choosing the wrong soil mixture, which affects the growth and yield. Not so good. A comparative study of different levels of soil and manure mixes on the growth and yield of Bak Choy in AmpilTapok commune, Orang Ov district, ThbongKhmum province. On the growth and yield of the first treatment (T1), the use of soil mix with cow dung, the second treatment (T2), the use of soil mix with chicken manure, and the third treatment (T3), the use of soil mix with pig manure is grown using a mixture of soil mixed with chicken manure (T2), which grows well and gives high yields in other ways.</strong></p> Hem Lina, Nim Thavann, Serey Mardy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 20 Feb 2024 13:26:54 +0000