UTILIZATION OF EXOPHYTIC AND ENDOPHYTIC MICROBES IN CONTROLLING ALTERNARIA FRUIT ROT OF APPLE (Malus domestica Borkh)
Apple rot disease caused by Alternaria sp. is a postharvest disease that is often found when fruit is marketed, transported and stored. The results showed that there were 45 isolates of exophytic microbes and 27 isolates of endophytes. The microbial diversity index of healthy apple exophytes is 1.249, this means that the condition of the commodity structure is quite stable with a medium category and a scale of 3, while the dominance index is 0.896, meaning that there are 10 isolates of the dominating species, namely Lasiodiplodia theobromae. With a evenness index of 0.885. The endophytic microbial diversity index in healthy apples was 2.793, which means the condition of the commodity structure was more stable with a good category and a scale of 4. The Simpson dominance index was 0.739, meaning that there was a dominant species, namely Rhizopus sp. as many as 23 isolates, with a evenness index value of 0.458. The inhibition of exophytic and endophytic microbes against pathogens in vitro showed that the highest inhibition of exophytic microbes was Actinomyces bovis (Actinomycetes), A. niger, Colletotrichum sp., and Rhizopus sp. each of 83.33±00%, while the highest endophyte was shown by L. theobromae at 83.33±00%, followed by the fungus Rhizopus sp. by 80.55±5.89% and the smallest by the fungus A. niger by 78.89±4.19%. In vivo inhibition of exophytic and endophytic microbes against pathogens showed that their effect was very significant in suppressing pathogen growth in fresh fruit. The effect of treatment C (A. niger) was very good in suppressing the growth of pathogens, so that the apples still looked smooth and fresh, different from treatments A (L. theobromae) and K+P (treatment with pathogens).
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