The Modeling and Analysis of the Interaction Between Domestic Workers and Foreign and Overseas Workers: A Competing Species Model

  • Art Kazmierczak T. H. E. Institute
Keywords: Foreign workers, domestic workers, overseas workers, competing species model, equilibrium solutions, stability at equilibrium solutions


Business is the very heart of the free enterprise system. Anything that affects the ability of businesses to make a reasonable profit is of some concern. One of the factors that affect the profitability of a business is the cost of its workforce. In recent years some businesses have turned to hire foreign workers over domestic workers to keep their costs down. The business has also turned to ship many jobs to overseas workers. This practice can have an effect on the local, state and national level. In this paper, we present a dynamic model of the interaction between domestic worker and domestic and overseas worker populations. The formulation is based on models of interactions between competitive species type dynamics. An exploration of the long-term dynamics and stability of homogeneous equilibrium solutions and their stability is given.

Mathematics subject classification: 62J12, 62G99

Computing Classification: I.4


Download data is not yet available.


http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.ed/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1007&context=westfall[permanent dead link]
Sharma, Nandita. Home Economics: Nationalism and the Making of 'Migrant Workers' in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006
"Foreign nationals working temporarily in Canada". Retrieved 2014-01-01.
"Green Cards and Permanent Residence in the U.S. | USAGov". Retrieved 2018-11-15.
D'amato, Gianni (December 2008). "SchweizerischesJahrbuchfürEntwicklungspolitik". SchweizerischesJahrbuchfürEntwicklungspolitik (27–2): 177–195. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
Foreign workers from selected Asian countries, by destination, 2010-11: Thousands. International Migration Outlook 2012
Abella, Manolo (1995). "Asian migrant and contract workers in the Middle East": 418–423.
Kapiszewski, Andrzej (2006). "Arab versus Asian migrant workers in the GCC countries". Ited Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development in the Arab Region.
Ratha, Dilip (2005). "Workers' remittances: an important and stable source of external development finance".
Shah, Nasra M. (1983). "Pakistani Workers in the Middle East: Volume, Trends and Consequences". International Migration Review. 17 (3): 410–424. doi:10.2307/2545795. JSTOR 2545795.
Manseau, Gwennan (2007). "Contractual solutions for migrant labourers: The case of domestic workers in the Middle East". Human Rights Law Commentary: 25–47.
KevinJ6. "Brain Drain". StudyMode.
Ruhs, Martin (2002). "Temporary Foreign Worker Programmes: Policies, adverse consequences, and the need to make them work".
"Labour market and Labour force survey (LFS) statistics - Statistics Explained". Retrieved 2016-06-26.
"Employment by sex, age and citizenship". European Commission Eurostat Products Datasets.
"The Offshoring of American Government". Cornell Law Review. November 2008. SSRN 1143044.
Stephan Manning; Silvia Massini; Arie Lewin (October 20, 2008). "SSRN-A Dynamic Perspective on Next-Generation Offshoring: The Global Sourcing of Science and Engineering Talent". Academy of Management Perspectives. 22 (3): 35–54. doi:10.5465/amp.2008.34587994. SSRN 1287369.
Cliff Justice; Stan Lepeak. "Captive Audience: How to Partner with Service Providers to Improve In-House Offshore Operations". CIO magazine. a.k.a. internal shared-services centers in low-cost locations
See "Appendix II: Definitions of Offshoring" in General Accounting Office: "International Trade: Current Government Data Provide Limited Insight into Offshoring of Services", September 2004. Imported intermediate goods are included in offshoring in "Swenson, D: "International Outsourcing", in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2008.
Milosz Miszczynski (2016-06-22). "Labour arbitrage: the lifecycle of a global production node". Journal of Organizational Ethnography. 5 (2): 106–122. doi:10.1108/JOE-04-2016-0009. ISSN 2046-6749.
"Staying put. European jobs are not coming back because few of them went in the first place". The Economist. January 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
"Offshore manufacturing - definition and meaning".
Fishman, T: "China, Inc." Scribner, 2006.
Mostafa Hashem Sherif (2006). Managing Projects in Telecommunication Service. ISBN 0470047674. (chapter) COMMUNICATION AND OUTSOURCING ... Roche, 1998
"Workforce Management Online, Dec 2007". Archived from the original on 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2010-04-12.
"Inshoring". Mike Karlesky. May 17, 2005. Retrieved 31 July2008.
Zacks Investment Research (April 29, 2015). "Reshoring Bringing Back Jobs to USA". Zacks Investment Research. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
John Urry (April 14, 2014). Offshoring. polity UK. ISBN 978-0745664866.
"World Bank World Development Report 2019: The Changing Nature of Work" (PDF).
Office of the Press Secretary. "President Obama Issues Call to Action to Invest in America at White House "Insourcing American Jobs" Forum". The White House. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
Christian F. Durach; Stefan Kurpjuweit; Stephan M. Wagner (2017-09-25). "The impact of additive manufacturing on supply chains". International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management. 47 (10): 954–971. doi:10.1108/ijpdlm-11-2016-0332. ISSN 0960-0035.
John Grgurich. "What's So Special About This Starbuck's [sic] Mug?". Daily Finance. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
Rosemary Coates. "How To Avoid a Failed Reshoring Project". CFO. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
Rosemary Coates. "Are you ready to evaluate Reshoring?". Blue Silk Consulting Reshoring.
"RSA completes move to UK-only call centres/1409402.article". Insurance Times. August 5, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
"India may no longer be outsourcing hub as UK companies such as Aviva, BT & Santander move work to home country". The Economic Times. July 14, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
de Rassenfosse, Gaétan; Thomson, Russell (2019). "R&D offshoring and home industry productivity". Industrial and Corporate Change. Oxford University Press. 28 (6): 1497–1513. doi:10.1093/icc/dtz020.
Rosenbusch, Nina; Gusenbauer, Michael; Hatak, Isabella; Fink, Matthias; Meyer, Klaus E. (April 12, 2019). "Innovation Offshoring, Institutional Context and Innovation Performance: A Meta-Analysis". Journal of Management Studies. 56 (1): 203–233. doi:10.1111/joms.12407 – via Wiley Online Library.
Paul Krugman (December 12, 2007). "The Trouble with Trade". The New York Times.
Ernest H. Preeg (May 1, 2002). Testimony on Chinese Currency Manipulation Archived 2006-04-27 at the Wayback Machine
"IT Employment Reaches Record High In U.S". InformationWeek. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
"Business Technology News and Commentary - InformationWeek". InformationWeek. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
"Myths and Realities: The False Crisis of Outsourcing". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
"Samuelson: Debunking the Great Offshoring Myth". 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
"Here, there and everywhere". January 19, 2013 – via The Economist.
"Shape up" – via The Economist.
Amiti, Mary; Wei, Shang-Jin; Haskel, Jonathan; Auriol, Emmanuelle (2005). "Fear of Service Outsourcing: Is It Justified?" (PDF). Economic Policy. 20 (42): 307–347. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0327.2005.00140.x. JSTOR 3601072.
Groshen, Erica; Hobijn, Bart; McConnell, Margaret M. (2005). "U.S. jobs gained and lost through trade: a net measure". Current Issues in Economics and Finance. 11 (Aug).
Liu, Runjuan; Trefler, Daniel (June 2008). "Much Ado About Nothing: American Jobs and the Rise of Service Outsourcing to China and India". NBER Working Paper No. 14061. doi:10.3386/w14061.
Ebenstein, Avraham; Harrison, Ann; McMillan, Margaret; Phillips, Shannon (2013-05-15). "Estimating the Impact of Trade and Offshoring on American Workers using the Current Population Surveys". The Review of Economics and Statistics. 96 (4): 581–595. doi:10.1162/rest_a_00400. ISSN 0034-6535.
Pierce, Justin R.; Schott, Peter K. (July 2016). "The Surprisingly Swift Decline of US Manufacturing Employment" (PDF). American Economic Review. 106 (7): 1632–1662. doi:10.1257/aer.20131578. hdl:10419/89626. ISSN 0002-8282.
Robert C. Feenstra; Gordon H. Hanson (1996). "Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality". The American Economic Review. 86 (2): 240–245. JSTOR 2118130.
Sara Murray And Douglas Belkin (October 2, 2010). "Americans Sour on Trade". WSJ. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
Gallup, Inc. "Americans' Top Job–Creation Idea: Stop Sending Work Overseas". Retrieved 29 April 2015.
M. Miszczynski (2016-02-18). "Global Production in a Romanian Village: Middle-Income Economy, Industrial Dislocation and the Reserve Army of Labor". Critical Sociology. 43 (7–8): 1079–1092. doi:10.1177/0896920515623076.
General Accounting Office: "Offshoring: U.S. Semiconductor and Software Industries Increasingly Produce in China and India" Archived 2010-12-02 at the Wayback Machine, September 2006.
Metters, Richard; Verma, Rohit (2008). "History of offshoring knowledge services". Journal of Operations Management. 26(2): 141. doi:10.1016/j.jom.2007.02.012.
Baase, Sara (2008). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing and The Internet (Third ed.). Harlow: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-600848-4.
Gartner Outlines the Top 10 Forces to Impact Outsourcing and IT Services Industry. Sep. 2010
Amy Karson; Marcia Brown (October 2012). A Nonprofit Guide to Outsourcing (PDF). Nonprofit Coordinating Committee of New York.
Marc-William Palen (June 18, 2013). "Protectionism leads to its own outsourcing problems".
Kupchan, C. (2012, January 1). The Democratic malaise: Globalization and the threat to the West, 62-67.
"Free Trade and Outsourcing Are Not the Same | YaleGlobal Online".
N. G. Mankiw (2006). "The Politics and Economics of Offshore Outsourcing" (PDF).
"Outsourcing & Offshoring Industry Market Research".
"Education and learning". The Los Angeles Times.
How to Cite
Kazmierczak, A. (2021). The Modeling and Analysis of the Interaction Between Domestic Workers and Foreign and Overseas Workers: A Competing Species Model. GPH - International Journal of Mathematics, 4(04), 01-26. Retrieved from