GPH-International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research <p><strong><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: 'Aptos', serif;"><span style="aptos: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium; font-family: 'Aptos', serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">(e-ISSN 2795-3248&nbsp;p-ISSN 2795-3222) </span></span></span><span style="aptos: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium; font-family: 'Aptos', serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">Some of the major topics include (but are not limited to) are </span></span></span><span style="helvetica: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium; font-family: 'Aptos', serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">Law, Anthropology, Archaeology, Geography, and Regional Planning, Terrorism, Business Management, Business Studies, Communication studies, Corporate Governance, Corporate organization, Criminology, Cross-cultural, studies, Demography, Development Studies, Economics, English, Literature, Entrepreneurship, ethics, General History, Geography, History, Human, human Tribes, Industrial relations, Information Science, International relations, International studies, Law, Legal Management, Library Science, Linguistics, literature, Local Languages, Market Management, Media studies, Music, Operational Management. </span></span></span></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><a title="Journal Impact Factor" href=""><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: 'Book Antiqua', serif;"><span style="helvetica: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-family: 'Book Antiqua', serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: 1.5em;"><span style="text-shadow: #FF0000 0px 0px 2px;">Impact Factor: 2.435</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></strong></p> GLOBAL PUBLICATION HOUSE en-US GPH-International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research <p>Author(s) and co-author(s)&nbsp;jointly&nbsp;and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any&nbsp;copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published&nbsp;elsewhere.&nbsp;Author(s) agree to the terms that the <strong>GPH Journal</strong> will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.</p> Challenges of Enforcement of Government ban of illegal Mining in Taraba State, Nigeria <p><strong>The solid mineral resource exploitation landscape in Taraba State has been dominated by the activities of small scale miners. The Nigerian government have put in place several mining laws and regulations to guide the exploitation of the solid mineral resources in the country, Taraba State inclusive. Despite this, illegal mining has been on the increase across the State. The study is anchored on the theory of the tragedy of the commons developed by Biologist Garret Hardin in 1968 to describe the issues with common property resources and the deterioration of renewable free access resources. The study adopted the qualitative research design approach using desk review of existing literature, field observations and key informant interview. Data was analyzed using the content analysis method. The findings of the study reveals that the Federal Ministry of Solid Mineral Resources does not have the capacity to effectively police the illegal mining sites in the State. So many illegal miners have been arrested over the years, many of whom were bailed and others made to pay fine. However, the enforcement of the ban on illegal mining activities has not been effective. Some of the challenges of effective enforcement of the ban include lack of adequate funding, lack of adequate manpower, difficult terrain and absence of good road network in the LGAs where illegal mining activities are taking place, high level of political connectedness and state protection the illegal miners enjoyed. Other challenges include involvement of foreign corporations in illegal mining, lack of prosecution of arrested illegal miners over the years, structural problems with Nigeria's fiscal federal system and porous nature of Nigeria’s border. Based on the findings the study recommends the need for formalization of the artisanal small scale mining activities, compelling prospective mining companies to present evidence of processing of the minerals, Nigerian government to consider amending the mining act and to deal with involvement of foreign nationals through diplomatic channels, collaboration between the federal and state governments and Nigeria government to modernize the mining sector.</strong></p> E.D. Oruonye D.G. Musa Y.M. Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-09 2023-11-09 6 11 01 12 10.5281/zenodo.10090348 CAPITAL COST AND SUSTAINABILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SCALE ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN NIGERIA <p><strong>This study conceptually examines Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) funding issues, particularly in emerging nations using Nigeria as a case study. It analyses institutional barriers to funding small startup businesses, such as the high cost of capital, inadequate collateral and weak legal structures. It emphasizes the deficiencies they face regarding high maintenance costs, poor managerial experience, high competition from foreign firms, Government’s inability in financing small and medium firms for them to attain their full capacity, weak Policies, changes in unstable tax tariff, and finally suggesting ways that can improve finance access for small and medium firms. The study recommends that individuals should acquire the necessary knowledge and skills pertaining to their chosen business endeavor through participation in entrepreneurial training programs, that government should promote the enhancement of SMEs capabilities through the localization of supply chains, encourage effective leadership at the highest organizational level and should be encouraged by the localization of value creation by actively engaging with SMEs. It also recommended that the government should increase the campaigns of elucidating the significance of taxation in fostering the growth of nations, while concurrently providing assistance to small and medium firms in comprehending the tax legislation in Nigeria.</strong></p> David Chucks Akan M. T. Sinebe Dudutari Bereprebofa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-16 2023-11-16 6 11 13 24 10.5281/zenodo.10142271 JURIDICAL REVIEW OF ONLINE LOANS IN ISLAMIC LAW <p><strong>These technological advances have brought convenience to the public, online loans have become a business trend this century and are seen as more effective, faster, and easier than loans made between parties by meeting in person to carry out debt and receivable transactions. On the other hand, whether online lending practices are by Islamic law or not. This has become a legal issue regarding the law enforcement process that is taking place in Indonesia regarding the rise of illegal online loans. Debts and receivables are one of the muamalah activities that are based on helping fellow humans, so Muslims are allowed to do this if they fulfill the debts and receivables agreement correctly. The research aims to analyze the juridical review of the legality of online loans in Islamic law as well as the legal consequences for debtors if they default in the implementation of online loans. This research is empirical normative legal research or library legal research and empirical juridical research, namely using rules in existing laws and regulations and research carried out by collecting data directly in the field from competent parties related to the object under study. The research results show that based on the DSN MUI Fatwa Number 117/DSN-MUI/IX/2018 concerning sharia principles information technology-based financing services it explains in terms of provisions related to general guidelines for information technology-based financing services based on sharia principles; and If the debtor voluntarily declares that he is in default, then the implementation of all the consequences of the default specified in the agreement can be carried out voluntarily. One form of binding agreement between a creditor (lender) and a debtor (loan recipient) is a loan and borrowing agreement.</strong></p> Abdul Rokhim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 6 11 25 38 10.5281/zenodo.10158455 Influence of Mass Media and Peer Pressure on Upper Basic Social Studies Students Sexual Behaviour in Edo and Delta States <p><strong>This study examined the influence of mass media and peer pressure on Upper Basic Social Studies students’ sexual behaviour in Edo and Delta States. Two research questions were raised and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was Fifty-one thousand, six hundred and twenty-four. The sample size for the study was 720 respondents arrived at using the multi-stage sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. Data generated were analyzed using the simple correlation statistics for the research questions while the Simple Regression was used to test the formulated null hypotheses at an alpha of 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that, there was a significant relationship between mass media and peer pressure on Upper Basic Social Studies Students sexual behaviour in the area under review. The study concluded that mass media and peer pressure influences Upper Basic Social Studies Students sexual behaviour in Edo and Delta States. The study recommended that government could strictly sanction the accessibility of adolescents to certain media messages, especially those on sex. Also, the mass media could be made to provide filtered and strict messages on sex education and sexual behaviour.</strong></p> AKHOGBAI, Emmanuel Monday ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 6 11 39 48 10.5281/zenodo.10208522 INDIRECTNESS AS A POLITICAL DISCOURSE STRATEGY IN DONALD TRUMP’S INAUGURAL ADDRESS <p><strong>Much of the meaning we convey during interaction is implicitly stated and this implies that hearers are set on a path to use their cognitive skills in deducing or inferring speakers' meaning or intentions. This strategy that speakers use in conveying meaning in a somewhat vague or roundabout manner is known as indirectness. This study accounts for indirectness in politics as a potent discourse strategy that political leaders employ. It accounts specifically for the forms of indirectness that President Trump employed during the delivery of his inaugural address. Instances of indirectness such as metaphor, circumlocution, and euphemism are identified and discussed in the address to interpret the speaker's hidden meaning behind every utterance. The study puts forward that indirectness does not only function to save or maintain face or as a politeness strategy, but also as a tool for getting the attention of listeners or the audience as well as fostering the personal beliefs and traditions of a political party against its opposition. Finally, the study concludes by asserting that language is not just a tool used to conceal the truth as indirectness suggests, but that it also employed – especially as used by political leaders – to reveal the other side of discourse not explicit to listeners.</strong></p> David Ejiroghene JAGBORO ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 6 11 49 59 10.5281/zenodo.10209395 AN ECOLINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF FLOOD FRAMING IN SELECTED NIGERIAN NEWSPAPER REPORTS <p><strong>Ecolinguistic researches unearth the deeply embedded linguistic choices in discourses utilized to address ecological issues. One particular way to achieve this is through the analysis of frames. Frames centre on the various ways ecological events are portrayed which reveal and influence the perceptions and reactions towards them. This present study therefore, carries out an ecolinguistic analysis of the framing of flood events in the 2018-2021 publications of five Nigerian National Newspapers. Using insights from Frame Analysis theory and Ecolinguistic Framework for Frame Analysis, the twenty purposively sampled data were given a qualitative analysis revealing how the concept of flooding as well as its problem solution is framed. The results reveal that, inferences from the SOURCE FRAMES of ANGRY BEING, LANDLORD, EMPLOYER, ECONOMIC VALUE, PROJECTILE, PURPOSIVE MOVEMENT, etc. have been adopted to describe flooding and its activities. The different actors’ perceptions of flooding through these frames evoke the urgency and necessity required to solve the problem. It is concluded in this research that, the use of such flood frames in these newspapers aptly capture the perception of flooding and its activities in Nigeria, which is capable of influencing the needed positive reactions and actions towards flood control, management as well as environmental protection in general.</strong></p> AGWUOCHA, UGOMMA ANAEKPERECHI ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 6 11 60 78 10.5281/zenodo.10245139 Internal Drivers of Dividend Payout in Nigerian Quoted Manufacturing Companies <p><strong>This study evaluated the internal drivers of dividend payout in Nigerian quoted manufacturing firms over the period of 2011 to 2019. The study employed secondary data gotten from annual financial reports of selected manufacturing firms and the Nigerian Stock Exchange Fact book. Dividend pay-out ratio served as the dependent variable whereas present net earnings per share, cost of floating new shares, financial leverage and liquidity served as the independent variables. The study employed the stationarity test which revealed the stationarity of the data at first difference. More so, panel regression using fixed effects model was employed as the Hausman test confirms it is more appropriate than the random effects model. The findings of the study evince that present net earnings per share, debt/equity ratio (leverage), flotation costs and liquidity showed significant influence on the dividend payout of the selected manufacturing firms in Nigeria. From the results of this study, we conclude that present net earnings per share, debt/equity ratio (leverage), flotation costs and liquidity are significant internal drivers of dividend payouts of quoted manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommends among others that manufacturing firms should ensure healthy, consistent and growing earnings so as to guarantee a stable and healthy profit margin. Manageable debt to equity ratio should be maintained to ensure financial flexibility as high debt levels can limit a company’s ability to pay dividends.</strong></p> Oniyide, Sikiru Mojekwu, Ogechukwu Rita ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 6 11 79 97 10.5281/zenodo.10245434 Simulation: A Tool for System Design and Analysis <p><strong>This research paper delves into the symbiotic relationship between simulation and systems theory, elucidating how simulation serves as a potent instrument for system design and analysis within the framework of systems theory. Systems theory offers a foundational perspective that accentuates holism, interdependence, emergence, feedback loops, hierarchy, adaptability, and boundary delineation in comprehending intricate systems. It encapsulates the complexity of real-world systems, rendering simulations invaluable for comprehensive analysis. Through the systems theory lens, simulation scrutinizes interdependencies, unveils emergent phenomena, and incorporates feedback loops, all while accommodating adaptability to evolving conditions. The pivotal concept of defining system boundaries, significant in both systems theory and simulation, ensures that researchers focus on the most pertinent facets of their subjects. This theoretical framework finds versatile applications across diverse domains, spanning manufacturing, healthcare, urban planning, and environmental science. In manufacturing, simulation models optimize processes by considering the holistic nature of production systems. In healthcare, systems theory and simulation facilitate evidence-based decision-making, leading to enhanced patient outcomes. In urban planning, simulation models navigate intricate traffic management interactions, while in environmental science, they assess ecosystem dynamics amid changing conditions. Ultimately, this research paper underscores the synergy between systems theory and simulation, showcasing how this alliance deepens our comprehension of complex systems and empowers informed decision-making in an ever-evolving milieu.</strong></p> Ofoegbu, Wilson Chukwuemeka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 6 11 98 111 10.5281/zenodo.10245559 EXPLORING THE USE OF RHETORIC IN PRESTIGE COSMETICS ADVERTISEMENTS <p><strong>Every advertising campaign is fundamentally persuasive and geared towards influencing the purchase decisions of individuals. Certain elements are employed to make advertisements apt, catchy and attention-attracting. One of such elements is rhetoric, the art of creating resources that are appellative, attention-attracting and persuasive. This paper, thus, aims at unpacking the intricacies of language use evident in the rhetorical techniques employed in cosmetics advertisements as apparatus for influencing and persuading individuals to making informed choices as they are being confronted daily by alternatives. The study is corpus based as it adopts a descriptive qualitative method to analyse data from 5 cosmetics advertisements sourced purposively from the wide corpora on the internet site of Prestige Cosmetics (, a Nigerian cosmetic brand. Again, Knowles and Linn’s (2004) Alpha Strategies of Persuasion is adopted as a working framework to analyse the strategies that add to the persuasive imports of the advertisements. The study reveals that aside the appeals advertisements exude, strategies of making advertisements more persuasive, adding incentives, increasing source credibility, providing concensus information, emphasizing consistency and commitment and engaging a norm of reciprocity are mechanics pulled by Prestige Cosmetics to heighten the persuasive undertones of advertisements. The paper then concludes that in cosmetics advertisements, rhetoric and all its composits are arts of creativity and persuasion tailored to sway the target into making purchase decisions.</strong></p> CHINWE INNOCENTIA AHUMARAEZE ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 6 11 112 127 10.5281/zenodo.10245584