The Sustainable Development Goals and Global Risk Society: A Sociological Evaluation

  • Vitalis Jafla Pontianus
  • E.D. Oruonye Ph.D
Keywords: Functionalist theory, global risk society, millennium development goals, sociological evaluation, sustainable development goals


The new millennium has been characterised by unprecedented advancements in human civilization vis-à-vis tension of impending doom (risk). Great progress has been made from risk as a phenomenon of human existence. Starting from the booming business opportunities that have grown around and that of paying for insurances of properties, assets, and even that of life. Insurance policies have become a norm and lifeline today or a pre-requisite for many to engage in business, education, travel, own properties, or even be eligible for certain job opportunities. In order to protect their populations from the danger of terrorism, states increasingly limit civil rights and liberties, with the result that in the end, the open free society may be abolished, but the terrorist threat is by no means averted. Global risk society encompasses various social, economic, political, religious, environmental, and gender-related issues that have continued to heighten social stability creating more and more scenarios of uncertainty and risk. This study, therefore, is a sociological evaluation of the SDGs as a panacea for the global risk society. The study findings reveal that the SDG framework can become a scorecard through which nations of the world could help evaluate their individual and collective efforts towards ameliorating the challenges and difficulties encountered by their people which will help reduce the economic tensions that have triggered most of them the scenarios of global risk society. The study findings show that 85% of displaced persons globally are hosted by developing countries. The causes of the displacement revolve around persecution, armed conflict, violence, human rights violation, unemployment, climate change endangering many communities in the Sahel in Africa, and rising sea levels in other parts of the world. The global risk society was a result of the inability of various nations and states to achieve a certain level of development to guarantee a stable society. Thus, these social, economic, and infrastructural deficiencies account for most of the global issues of displacement leading to modernity of a risk society. The study concludes that since the SDGs are the global framework aimed at addressing most of these needs, it is possible that once these goals are achieved, there is a possibility for a stable society with less risk. Based on the findings, the study recommends the need for the United Nation to constantly supervise and review the process of engaging the public at every stage of the implementation of the SDG programme.


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Author Biographies

Vitalis Jafla Pontianus

Department of Sociology, Taraba State University Jalingo, Nigeria.

E.D. Oruonye, Ph.D

Department of Geography, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria


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How to Cite
Pontianus, V. J., & Oruonye, E. (2021). The Sustainable Development Goals and Global Risk Society: A Sociological Evaluation. IJSSHR - International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 4(02), 01-16. Retrieved from