THE MEDIA PRIMING OF THE 2015 NIGERIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN SELECTED NEWSPAPERS

  • Francis Amenaghawon Ph.D
  • Damilola Fagbamigbe
Keywords: MEDIA PRIMING, NIGERIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, NEWSPAPERS, mass media, economy, religion, entertainment, education, politics, politicians, Democracy, Governance Bureau

Abstract

The mass media is a veritable institution which influences theperceptions that the public have of other segments of society .Issues such as economy, religion, entertainment  education, politics,among other are most time shaped by their representation in the media.Specifically, politicians need the media as a campaign platform to interact with people in the society to present their manifestoes and gain the support of the electorates. According to Center for Democracy and Governance Bureau for Global Programs, Field Support, and Research U.S. Agency for International Development Washington, D.C.:

Access to information is essential to the health of democracy for at least two reasons. First, it ensures that citizens make responsible, informed choices rather than acting out of ignorance or misinformation. Second, information serves a “checking function” by ensuring that elected representatives uphold their oaths of office and carry out the wishes of those who elected them. In some societies, an antagonistic relationship between media and government represents a vital and healthy element of fully functioning democracies. 

The media is the primary means through which public opinion is shaped and at times manipulated”. (ACE Newsletter cited in https://aceproject.org/ace-en/topics/me). The media can form, reverse or modify the public opinion of a people in various ways depending on the goals and objectives of the media. Therefore,  candidates that can afford to pay for more airtime, space and advertisement in any media have more influence on people’s opinion  can more likely tilt votes. The ACE Newsletter on Media and Election posits that:

The media is very efficient when it comes to altering the perception of voters, information, attitudes as well as behavior. It is evident that the media could have an influence on the election campaigns and the evaluations that people would have of political candidates. The media would act as a spotlight on the various issues the public would be primed to pay attention to during elections. That is, the media would determine the key issues electorates are to focus on during elections and the criteria that can be used to judge politicians.

Author Biographies

Francis Amenaghawon, Ph.D

Department of Communication and Language Arts,

University of Ibadan,

Nigeria

Damilola Fagbamigbe

Department of Communication and Language Arts,

University of Ibadan, Nigeria

References

ACE Newsletter on Media and Elections https://aceproject.org/ace-en/topics/me [Accessed 20th September 2015]
Agba, P.C (2007). “Role of mass media in electioneering campaign in a developing context” inIkechukwu Nwosu et al (eds) communication for sustainable human development, Enugu, African council for communication education.
Aghamelu, F.C. (2014). The Role of the Mass Media in the Nigerian Electoral Process.UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities, Awka Nigeria.
Akinola, O.S. (2009). “A Comparative Content Analysis of the Nigerian Tribune and The Punch Newspapers’ Coverage of the 2008 American Presidential Election”. A Ph. D Project, Department of Communication and Language University of Ibadan.
Althaus, S.L. & Kim, Y.M. (2006). Priming Effects in Complex Information Environment: Reassessing the Impact of News Discourse on Presidential Approval, “The Journal of Politics” Vol. 68 (2006), No. 4, p. 960.
Amadeo, B. (2007). Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming: Different Answers to Different Questions. Dissertation en el Fifth Annual Congress of Communication in the Millenium. Indiana University, Bloomington, EE. UU. 16 al 18 de mayo de.

Amenaghawon, F. (2015). “Print Media Framing of the Niger Delta Conflict: 1998-2009”A Ph.D.Project, Department of Communication and Language Arts, University of Ibadan.

Amola, I.O. (1984).“Influence of Media Ownership and Control of News Dissemination: The Nigerian Tribune Example” A B.A Project, Department of Communication and Language Arts, University of Ibadan.
Bartels, L. M. (1992). Messages received: The political impact of mass media. AmericanBehr, Political Science Review, 87, 267–285.
Busayo, A.N. (2008).“Press Coverage of the impeachment of Governor of Bayelsa State, Chief Diepreye Samuel Peter Alamieyeseigha.” A B.A Project, Department of Communication and Language Arts, University of Ibadan.
Daramola, I. (2003).Introduction to Mass Communication. Lagos: Rothan Press Ltd.
Democracy in Brief on “What is Democracy” http://photos.state.gov/libraries/korea/49271/dwoa_122709/Democracy-in-Brief_kor.pdf [Accessed 5th November 2015].
Dominick, J. (2007).The Dynamics of Mass Communication’s Media in the Digital Age,
9thedition, New York: McGraw Hill.
Dukor, M. (1998). “The state and the media in Africa” in Dukor (ed) Philosophy and Politics Discourse on Values and Power in Africa, Lagos. O.O.P Ltd.
Edeani, O.J. (1994).Nigerian Mass Media Handling of Conflict Situation in West Africa SubRegion. In African Media Review Vol.8 No8.
Eric, L. (2007).The Media and Political Process. London: Sage Publication Ltd.
Em Griffin, (2003). A First Look at Communication Theory. New York: New York Publisher.
Gerbner, G.& Gross, L. (1974). System of Cultural Indicators. Public Opinion Quarterly, 38,460–461.
Hastie, R.& Park, B. (1986). The relationship between memory and judgment depends on
whether the task is memory-based or on-line. Psychological Review, 93, 258–268.
Holbrook, R.A., and Hill, T.G. (2005).Agenda-Setting and Priming in Prime Time Television, “PoliticalCommunication” Vol. 22, p. 278.
Iredia T.O. (2007). “Information dissemination, voters mobilization and election monitoring inNigerian electoral process”: in Ogun M (ed) improving the fortunes and destiny ofNigeria through the Ballot Box, Abuja, publication of the catholic laity council of Nigeria.
Iyengar, S. (1985). Television news, real-world cues, and changes in the public agenda.
Public Opinion Quarterly, 49, 38–57.
Iyengar, S.& Kinder, D. R. (1987). News that matters: Television and American Opinion.Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kalu O.U(1985).Religion and Political Values in Nigeria: A Pluralistic Perspective. Katherine Nsukka, University Press.
Karachi, M.S.(2010).“The Role of the Media in the Society” http://www.hamariweb.com/articles/article.aspx?id=10166 [Accessed 5th November 2015]
Krosnick, Jon A., and Donald R. Kinder. (1990). “Altering the Foundations of Support for The President through Priming.” American Political Science Review
Lazarsfeld, P. M., Berelson, B. R., & Gaudet, H. (1948). The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce.
Lenz, G.S. (2004).Learning and Opinion Change, Not Priming: Reconsidering the Priming Hypothesis,American Journal of Political Science Vol. 53 (2009), No. 4, pp. 21‒22.
McCombs, M. E. (2004). Setting the agenda: The mass media and public opinion. Malden, MA:Blackwell.
McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36(2), 176–187.
McQuail, D. (1987).Mass Communication Theory An Introduction (2nd edition). London: Sage Publication.
Miller, (2002).Communication Theories: Perspectives, Processes, and Context, U.S.A: The McGraw-Hilll Companies, Inc.
Miller, Joanne M., and Jon A. Krosnick. (2000). “News Media Impact on the Ingredients of Presidential Evaluations: Politically Knowledgeable Citizens Are Guided by a TrustedSource.” American Journal of Political Science Vol. 44 No. 2, p. 301.
Moy, P. Xenos, M.A.,, and Hess, V.K. (2006). Priming effect of late-night Comedy. International Journal of Public Opinion Research.
Nowak, E. (2012). The Concept of Priming within Political Communication Studies. Media Studies, 49.
Nwaozuzu (1999). “Reporting Elections in Developing Nations” in D. Koroma (ed) mass communication and nation-building Vol. I. Maiduguri, University of Maiduguri Press.
Obasanjo, O. & Mabogunje, A. (1991). (ed) The element of Development.Abeokuta: ALF
Publications.
Ogunsiji, M.A. (1989).An Introduction to Print Journalism. Lagos: Nelson Publisher Ltd.
Omoera, O.S. (2010).The Import of the Media in an Emerging Democracy: An Evaluation of the Nigerian Situation.A Journal of Social Science, 22(1): 33-38 (2010).
Omoruyi, O. (1994).Democratization in Africa: African perspectives. Benin: Hilma &Hilma Ltd.
Price, V.& Tewksbury, D. (1997). News values and public opinion: A theoretical account of media priming and framing. In G. A. Barett & F. J. Boster (Eds.), Progress in communication sciences: Advances in persuasion (Vol. 13, pp. 173–212). Greenwich,CT: Ablex.
Scheufele, D.A & Tewksbury, D. (2007). Framing, agenda-setting, and priming: the evolution ofthree media effects models. Journal of Communication. 57: 9-20.
Severin, J. & Tankard J. (1997) Communication Theories: Origins, Methods, and Uses in the Mass Media. U.S.A: Longman Publishers Inc.
Sheafer, T., & Weimann, G. (2005).Agenda Building, Agenda Setting, Priming, IndividualVoting Intentions, and the Aggregate Results: An Analysis of Four Israeli Elections. Journal of Communication, June 2005
Shoemaker, P. J., & Reese, S. D. (1996). Mediating the message: Theories of influences on mass media content (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 207–222.
Wahl-Jorgensen, K., and Hanitzsch, T. (2009).The Handbook of Journalism Studies. New York, NY: Routledge. Pp. 3-16.
Willnat, L. (1997). Agenda setting and priming: Conceptual links and differences. In
M. McCombs, D. L. Shaw, & D. Weaver (Eds.), Communication and democracy: Exploringthe intellectual frontiers in agenda-setting theory (pp. 51–66). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wimmer, R & Dominick, J.R. (2003). Mass media research: an introduction.6th ed Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Published
2020-10-31
How to Cite
Amenaghawon, F., & Fagbamigbe, D. (2020). THE MEDIA PRIMING OF THE 2015 NIGERIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN SELECTED NEWSPAPERS. IJSSHR - International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 3(10), 01- 14. Retrieved from http://gphjournal.org/index.php/ssh/article/view/315