The Modeling and Analysis of the Interaction of Neutral Populations and Police, Gang and Drug Populations: A Competing Species Model
The rise of the gang and drug populations throughout the United States has brought concern, debate, and contention to the modern world. The strategies of gangs and druggies are national and are no longer concentrated in a particular location. In recent papers we have looked at models of the interaction between neutral populations and 1) police populations, 2) gang populations and 3) druggy populations individually. These models are unrealistic as all four of these population exist at one time and in one place. In this paper, we present a dynamical model of the interaction between neutral, police, gang, and druggy populations simultaneously. The formulation is based on models of interactions between competing species type dynamics. An exploration of the long-term dynamics and stability of homogeneous equilibrium solutions and their stability is given. The paper is given in multiple parts. Part two presents the mathematical model. Part three analyzes the current populations. Part four analyzes the situation when an additional number of gang members are added to the population. In section five we analyze an increase in the drug population. In section six we analyze the scenario of an increase in both gang and drug populations. Part eight we analyze a decrease in the gang population. Part nine analyzes a decrease in the drug population. Part ten presents a decrease in the gang and drug population. In part eleven we consider the scenario when gang, drug and police populations decrease. Conclusions are presented in section twelve.
Latin Kings gang members charged in murder, racketeering, drug offenses'". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 2010-07-22. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
National Gang Threat Assessment, Emerging Trends". U.S. National Gang Intelligence Center. 2011. p. 7.
National Gang Threat Assessment, Emerging Trends". U.S. National Gang Intelligence Center. 2011. p. 9.
Why Young People Join Gangs". lapdonline.org.
Gang Alternatives Program (GAP)". gangfree.org.
Why Do Youth Join Gangs?". ojjdp.gov.
Gangs give members sense of purpose, belonging – but there's a price". northwestern.edu.
Why Young People Join Gangs and What You Can Do". violencepreventioninstitute.com.
Gangs give members sense of purpose, belonging – but there's a price". News.medill.northwestern.edu. 2010-05-20. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
Nanny, .T., Taylor, M.J., Wamser-Nanney, R.A. & Welch, D.Z. (2016.). The impact of sports participation on female gang involvement and delinquency. Journal of Sport Behavior. 39(3).
Nanney, J.T., Taylor, M.J., Wamser-Nanney, R.A. & Welch, D.Z. (2016.). The impact of sports participation on female gang involvement and deilnquency. Journal of Sport Behavior. 39(3).
Johnson, Kevin (2009-01-29). "FBI: Burgeoning gangs behind up to 80% of U.S. crime". USA Today.
Valdez, A. (2007). Gangs Across America.
National Gang Threat Assessment, Emerging Trends". U.S. National Gang Intelligence Center. 2011. p. 30.
Street Gangs — Chicago Based or Influenced, People Nation and Folk Nation". Dc.state.fl.us. Archived from the original on 2008-03-16.
Brotherhood of Hate". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
White supremacist gang gaining clout after forging alliance with Aryan Brotherhood". courtTVnews. 2007-03-05. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
Hallworrth and Young (2005)
Ben Marshall; Barry Webb; Nick Tilley (November 2005). "Rationalisation of current research on guns, gangs and other weapons:Phase 1" (PDF). Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, University College London. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
Shelley, Louise. "Journal Article Excerpt". Journal of International Affairs. 48. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
National Gang Threat Assessment, Emerging Trends". National Gang Intelligence Center. 2011. p. 28.
Blumstein, Alfred "Youth, Guns, & Violent Crime" The Future Of Children, vol. 12 no.2(2002):39
Irving A. Spergel, "Youth Gangs: Continuity and Change", Crime & Justice vol. 12 (1990):171
Klein, Malcolm "The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. and Europe"social science (2000): 3
Irving A. Spergel, "Youth Gangs: Continuity and Change", Crime & Justice vol. 12 (1990): 174
the Abyss: The Racial and Ethnic Composition of Gangs[dead link]
National Gang Threat Assessment, Emerging Trends". U.S. National Gang Intelligence Center. 2011. p. 19.
Fact Sheet: Securing America Through Immigration Reform". georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. November 2005. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
Heather Mac Donald (2005-04-13). "Testimony". Manhattan Institute For Policy Research. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
Moran, Robert (22 July 2010). The Philadelphia Inquirer Retrieved 10 Jan 2011
Rick Anderson. "Lethally Blonde". Seattle News.
Jerry Seper (2005). "Gang will target Minuteman vigil on Mexico border". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
Jerry Seper. "Al Qaeda seeks tie to local gangs". The Washington Times.
Treasury Sanctions Significant Members Of MS-13". Treasury.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2015.Malkin,
Elizabeth. "U.S. Imposes Sanctions on 3 Leaders of Gang Based in El Salvador". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
National Gang Threat Assessment, Emerging Trends". U.S. National Gang Intelligence Center. 2011. p. 20.
Hult, Karla (3 May 2013). "Somali Minnesotans, through the eyes of three generations". Kare 11. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
National Gang Threat Assessment, Emerging Trends". U.S. National Gang Intelligence Center. 2011. p. 21.
Gang Violence. Gang Statistics". Retrieved October 19,2014.
National Youth Gang Survey Analysis". =National Gang Center. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
FBI — 2011 National Gang Threat Assessment". FBI.
The New York Times - Hate Groups Are Infiltrating the Military, Group Asserts
CBS2Chicago Archived October 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. - Chicago Gang Graffiti Showing Up In Iraq
Stars and Stripes - Army defends recruit screening process
Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF)on 2009-08-05. Retrieved 2015-03-07. - Gang-Related Activity in the US Armed Forces Increasing
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 1.
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 2.
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 3.
Irving A. Spergel, "Youth Gangs: Continuity and Change", Crime & Justice vol. 12 (1990): 172
Johnson, Michael. "The New York Draft Riots", Reading the American Past, (2009): 295
Asbury, H. (1928) The Gangs of New York : An Informal History of the Underworld. Reprinted in original format 1989 Dorset Press; ISBN 0-88029-429-9. Republished in 2001 with a foreword by Jorge Luis Borges
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 9.
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 5.
Adamson, Christopher(2000), "Defensive localisms in white and black: a comparative history of European-American and African American youth gangs", Ethnic and Racial Studies 23 (2): 272-298.
Klein, M.W., Kerner, H.J., Maxson, C.L. &Weitekamp, G.M. (2001)(eds) "The EurogangParadox":Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. and Europe', Kluwer Academic Publications, ISBN 0-7923-6844-4
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 6.
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 10.
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 4.
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 7.
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 11.
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 12.
Hayden, T. (2004) 'Street Wars': Gangs and the Future of Violence, New York: The New Press.
Dichiara, A. And Chabot, R. (2003) 'Gangs and the Contemporary Urban Struggle: An Unappreciated Aspect of Gangs', in Gangs and Society: Alternative Perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press.
James C. Howell (May 2010). "History of Street Gangs in the United States" (PDF). National Gang Center Bulletin. p. 8.
Meranze, M. (1996), Laboratories of Virtue: Punishment, Revolution, and Authority in Philadelphia, 1760-1835, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 978-0-8078-2277-7
Levy, F. (1987) Dollars and Dreams: The Changing American Income Distribution. New York: Russell Sage.
Oliver, M.L., Johnson, J.H. And Ferrell, W.C. (1993) 'Anatomy of a Rebellion: A political-economic Analysis', in Reading Rodney King, Reading Urban uprising (ed.), New York: Routledge Press.
Wilson, William Julius. (1978). The Declining Significance of Race: Blacks and Changing American Institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Starr, K. (2004) Coast of Dreams: California on the Edge, 1990–2003. New York: Random House.
Child killing sparks action against Los Angeles gangs." The Christian Science Monitor. September 25, 1995. Volume 87, Issue 210. Page 4.
Pelisek, Christine (July 14, 2005). "Avenues of Death". LA Weekly.
Warren, Susan (January 31, 1994). "Violent Times/In local gang world, violence has different meaning (A1)". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
Southwest Houston After Dark," Texas Monthly, December 2006
Gangs Increasing in Military, FBI Says". Military.com. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
Gray, Madison (September 2, 2009). "Street Crime: Too Often Blamed on Gangs, Experts Say". TIME. Retrieved September 2, 2009.
U.S. Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Jan. 29, 2010.
Tyshawn Lee's killing the fourth in recent feud between gang factions". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-12-05.
Nutt, D.; King, L. A.; Saulsbury, W.; Blakemore, C.(2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse". The Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–1053. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4. PMID 17382831
World Drug Report 2012" (PDF). UNITED NATIONS. Retrieved 27 September 2016."EMCDDA | Information on the high-risk drug use (HRDU) (formerly 'problem drug use' (PDU)) key indicator". www.emcdda.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-09-27.
GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
Ksir, Oakley Ray; Charles (2002). Drugs, society, and human behavior (9th ed.). Boston [u.a.]: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0072319631.
(2002). Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary. Sixth Edition. Drug abuse definition, p. 552. Nursing diagnoses, p. 2109. ISBN 0-323-01430-5.
Addiction is a Chronic Disease". Archived from the originalon 24 June 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385: 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
A Public Health Approach" (PDF). Retrieved 1 April 2017.
Nutt, David J; King, Leslie A; Phillips, Lawrence D (November 2010). "Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis". The Lancet. 376 (9752): 1558–1565. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61462-6.
E. Fehrman, A. K. Muhammad, E. M. Mirkes, V. Egan, A. N. Gorban,The Five Factor Model of personality and evaluation of drug consumption risk, arXiv:1506.06297 [stat.AP], 2015
Philip Jenkins, Synthetic panics: the symbolic politics of designer drugs, NYU Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8147-4244-0, pp. ix–x
Barrett SP, Meisner JR, Stewart SH (November 2008). "What constitutes prescription drug misuse? Problems and pitfalls of current conceptualizations" (PDF). Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 1 (3): 255–62. doi:10.2174/1874473710801030255. PMID 19630724. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-15.
McCabe SE, Boyd CJ, Teter CJ (June 2009). "Subtypes of nonmedical prescription drug misuse". Drug Alcohol Depend. 102 (1–3): 63–70. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.01.007. PMC 2975029. PMID 19278795.
Antai-Otong, D. 2008. Psychiatric Nursing: Biological and Behavioral Concepts. 2nd edition. Canada: Thompson Delmar Learning
The Prescription Drug Abuse Epidemic". PDMP Center of Excellence. 2010–2013.
Topics in Brief: Prescription Drug Abuse" NIDA, December 2011.
Combating Prescription Drug Abuse in Your Practice"Archived 2012-06-18 at the Wayback Machine. Aubrey Westgate, Physicians Practice, June 2012.
Burke PJ, O'Sullivan J, Vaughan BL (November 2005). "Adolescent substance use: brief interventions by emergency care providers". PediatrEmerg Care. 21 (11): 770-6. doi:10.1097/01.pec.0000186435.66838.b3. PMID 16280955.
O'Connor, Rory; Sheehy, Noel (29 January 2000). Understanding suicidal behaviour. Leicester: BPS Books. pp. 33–36. ISBN 978-1-85433-290-5.
Isralowitz, Richard (2004). Drug use: a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-1-57607-708-5.University of Miami: Substance Abuse, Substance Abuse and Health Risks
Di Forti M, Marconi A, Carra E, Fraietta S, Trotta A, Bonomo M, Bianconi F, Gardner-Sood P, O'Connor J, Russo M, Stilo SA, Marques TR, Mondelli V, Dazzan P, Pariante C, David AS, Gaughran F, Atakan Z, Iyegbe C, Powell J, Morgan C, Lynskey M, Murray RM (2015). "Proportion of patients in south London with first-episode psychosis attributable to use of high potency cannabis: a case-control study" (PDF). Lancet Psychiatry. 2(3): 233–8. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00117-5. PMID 26359901.
Marta Di Forti (17 December 2013). "Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 40: 1509–1517. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbt181.
Evans, Katie; Sullivan, Michael J. (1 March 2001). Dual Diagnosis: Counseling the Mentally Ill Substance Abuser (2nd ed.). Guilford Press. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-1-57230-446-8.
Impulsivity". The Free Dictionary.
Gerard Moeller M.D., Barratt Ernest S., Ph, Dougherty Donald M., Ph, Schmitz Joy M., Ph, Swann Alan C. (2001). "Psychiatric Aspects of Impulsivity". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 158 (11): 2001. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1783. Archived from the original
Bishara AJ, Pleskac TJ, Fridberg DJ, Yechiam E, Lucas J, Busemeyer JR, Finn PR, Stout JC (2009). "Similar Processes Despite Divergent Behavior in Two Commonly Used Measures of Risky Decision Making". J BehavDecisMak. 22: 435–454. doi:10.1002/bdm.641. PMC 3152830. PMID 21836771.
Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction[dead link]
Chambers RA, Taylor JR, Potenza MN (2003). "Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: a critical period of addiction vulnerability". Am J Psychiatry. 160: 1041–52. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.6.1041. PMC 2919168. PMID 12777258.
Jeronimus B.F.; Kotov, R.; Riese, H.; Ormel, J. (2016). "Neuroticism's prospective association with mental disorders halves after adjustment for baseline symptoms and psychiatric history, but the adjusted association hardly decays with time: a meta-analysis on 59 longitudinal/prospective studies with 443 313 participants". Psychological Medicine. 46: 2883–2906. doi:10.1017/S0033291716001653. PMID 27523506.
Morse, Barbara (1997). Screening for Substance Abuse During Pregnancy: Improving Care, Improving Health (PDF). pp. 4–5. ISBN 1-57285-042-6.
O'Donohue, W; K.E. Ferguson (2006). "Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology and Behavior Analysis". The Behavior Analyst Today. Joseph D. Cautilli. 7 (3): 335–350. doi:10.1037/h0100155. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
Chambless, D.L.; et al. (1998). "An update on empirically validated therapies" (PDF). Clinical Psychology. American Psychological Association. 49: 5–14. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
NIH Senior Health "Build With You in Mind": Survey". nihseniorhealth.gov. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies – What is CBT?". Archived from the original on 2010-04-21.
Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies – What is Family Therapy?". Archived from the original on 2010-06-13.
Hogue, A; Henderson, CE; Ozechowski, TJ; Robbins, MS (2014). "Evidence base on outpatient behavioral treatments for adolescent substance use: updates and recommendations 2007–2013". Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 43(5): 695–720. doi:10.1080/15374416.2014.915550. PMID 24926870.
Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies – Treatment for Substance Use Disorders". Archived from the original on 2010-04-21.
Engle, Bretton; Macgowan, Mark J. (2009-08-05). "A Critical Review of Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatments". Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work. 6 (3): 217–243. doi:10.1080/15433710802686971. ISSN 1543-3714. PMID 20183675.
Maternal substance use and integrated treatment programs for women with substance abuse issues and their children: a meta-analysis". www.crd.york.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
Carney, Tara; Myers, Bronwyn J; Louw, Johann; Okwundu, Charles I (2016-01-20). Brief school-based interventions and behavioural outcomes for substance-using adolescents. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd008969.pub3.
Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G. (2011). "Effectiveness of motivational interviewing interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change: A meta-analytic review". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 79 (4): 433–440. doi:10.1037/a0023992. PMID 21728400.
Barnett, Elizabeth; Sussman, Steve; Smith, Caitlin; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna (2012). "Motivational Interviewing for adolescent substance use: A review of the literature". Addictive Behaviors. 37 (12): 1325–1334. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.07.001. PMC 3496394. PMID 22958865.
Self-Help Groups Article". Retrieved May 27, 2015.
Uekermann J, Daum I (May 2008). "Social cognition in alcoholism: a link to prefrontal cortex dysfunction?". Addiction. 103 (5): 726–35. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02157.x. PMID 18412750.
Purvis G.; MacInnis D. M. (2009). "Implementation of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) in a Long-Standing Addictions Outpatient Clinic" (PDF). Journal of Behavior Analysis of Sports, Health, Fitness and Behavioral Medicine. 2: 133–44. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-29.
Current Pharmacological Treatment Available for Alchhol Abuse". The California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse. 2006–2013.
James W. Kalat Biological psychology 11th edition pg.78
Maglione, M; Maher, AR; Hu, J; Wang, Z; Shanman, R; Shekelle, PG; Roth, B; Hilton, L; Suttorp, MJ; Ewing, BA; Motala, A; Perry, T (September 2011). "Off-Label Use of Atypical Antipsychotics: An Update [Internet]". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). PMID 22132426. Report No.: 11-EHC087-EF.
Lingford-Hughes AR, Welch S, Peters L, Nutt DJ, British Association for Psychopharmacology, Expert Reviewers Group (2012-07-01). "BAP updated guidelines: evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of substance abuse, harmful use, addiction and comorbidity: recommendations from BAP". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 26 (7): 899–952. doi:10.1177/0269881112444324. ISSN 0269-8811. PMID 22628390.
Lingford-Hughes A. R.; Welch S.; Peters L.; Nutt D. J. (2012). "BAP updated guidelines: evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of substance abuse, harmful use, addiction and comorbidity: recommendations from BAP"(PDF). Journal of Psychopharmacology. 26 (7): 899–952. doi:10.1177/0269881112444324. PMID 22628390. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-03.
Peterson Ashley L (2013). "Integrating Mental Health and Addictions Services to Improve Client Outcomes". Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 34: 752–756. doi:10.3109/01612840.2013.809830. PMID 24066651.
Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004
Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., &Schulenberg, J. E. (2011). Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2010. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.
CDC Newsroom Press Release June 3, 2010".
Barker, P. ed. 2003. Psychiatric and mental health nursing: the craft and caring. London: Arnold. pp297
Effective Child Therapy: Substance Abuse and Dependence. Copyright 2012 Archived 2013-05-03 at the Wayback Machine.
Drug Trade". BBC News.
Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).
Glasscote, R.M., Sussex, J.N., Jaffe, J.H., Ball, J., Brill, L. (1932). The Treatment of Drug Abuse for people like you...: Programs, Problems, Prospects. Washington, D.C.: Joint Information Service of the American Psychiatric Association and the National Association for Mental Health.
Second Report of the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse; Drug Use In America: Problem In Perspective (March 1973), p.13
Transformations: Substance Drug Abuse
DSM-IV &DSM-IV-TR:Substance Dependence Archived2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edition). Washington, DC.
Hasin, Deborah S.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Auriacombe, Marc; Borges, Guilherme; Bucholz, Kathleen; Budney, Alan; Compton, Wilson M.; Crowley, Thomas; Ling, Walter (2013-08-01). "DSM-5 Criteria for Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations and Rationale". American Journal of Psychiatry. 170 (8): 834–851. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12060782. ISSN 0002-953X. PMC 3767415. PMID 23903334.
Copeman M (April 2003). "Drug supply and drug abuse". CMAJ. 168 (9): 1113, author reply 1113. PMC 153673. PMID 12719309. Archived from the original on 2009-09-06.
Wood E, Tyndall MW, Spittal PM, et al. (January 2003). "Impact of supply-side policies for control of illicit drugs in the face of the AIDS and overdose epidemics: investigation of a massive heroin seizure". CMAJ. 168 (2): 165–9. PMC 140425. PMID 12538544.
Bewley-Taylor, Dave, Hallam, Chris, Allen Rob. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme: The Incarceration of Drug Offenders: An Overview. March 2009. 
Prieto L (2010). "Labelled drug-related public expenditure in relation to gross domestic product (gdp) in Europe: A luxury good?". Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. 5: 9. doi:10.1186/1747-597x-5-9.
NHS and Drug Abuse". National Health Service (NHS). March 22, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
Home Office | Tackling Drugs Changing Lives | Drugs in the workplace". 2007-06-09. Archived from the original on 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
Thornton, Mark. "The Economics of Prohibition".
The economic costs of drug abuse in the United States
Owens PL, Barrett ML, Weiss AJ, Washington RE, Kronick R (August 2014). "Hospital Inpatient Utilization Related to Opioid Overuse Among Adults, 1993–2012". HCUP Statistical Brief #177. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Drachman, D. (1992). "A stage-of-migration framework for service to immigrant populations". Social Work. 37 (1): 68–72. doi:10.1093/sw/37.1.68.
Pumariega A. J.; Rothe E.; Pumariega J. B. (2005). "Mental health of immigrants and refugees". Community Mental Health Journal. 41 (5): 581–597. doi:10.1007/s10597-005-6363-1.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2005). Module 10F: Immigrants, refugees, and alcohol. In NIAAA: Social work education for the prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders (NIH publication). Washington, D.C.
Caetano R.; Clark C. L.; Tam T. (1998). "Alcohol consumption among racial/ethnic minorities: Theory and research". Journal of Alcohol, Health, and Research. 22 (4): 233–241.
UNODC. "Understanding Substance Use Among Street Children" (PDF). Retrieved 30 January 2014.
Cottrell-Boyce, Joe (2010). "THE ROLE OF SOLVENTS IN THE LIVES OF STREET CHILDREN" (PDF). African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies. 9 (2): 93–102. doi:10.4314/ajdas.v9i2.64142. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
Breitenfeld D.; Thaller V.; Perić B.; Jagetic N.; Hadžić D.; Breitenfeld T. (2008). "Substance abuse in performing musicians". Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions. 44 (1): 37–42.
Dunne, E. M., Burrell, L. I., Diggins, A. D., Whitehead, N. E., & Latimer, W. W. (2015). "Increased risk for substance use and health‐related problems among homeless veterans". The American Journal On Addictions. 24 (7): 676–680. doi:10.1111/ajad.12289.
Zlotnick, C., Tam, T., & Robertson, M. J. (2003). "Disaffiliation, substance use, and exiting homelessness". Substance Use & Misuse. 38 (3–6): 577–599. doi:10.1081/ja-120017386.
Treatment Programs for Substance Use Problems – Mental Health". www.mentalhealth.va.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-17.
Copyright (c) 2021 GPH - International Journal of Mathematics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Author(s) and co-author(s) jointly and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published elsewhere. Author(s) agree to the terms that the GPH Journal will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.