The Negative Effects of Heat Stress on Farm Animals during the Hot Summer Season in Tropical and Subtropical Countries and How to Reduce the Adverse Effects
The thermal comfort region for the greatest animals is between 4° C and 25° C. When temperature surpasses 25° C, animals suffer heat stress. In severe heat stress, the profound body temperature increases, animal cells are affected and production performance is reduced. Most physiological and biochemical variations could occur to protect essential cell functions in contradiction of heat stress and to permit a fast recovery from moderate hypothermic destruction. In tropical and subtropical countries, the climatic characteristic is the major constraint on animal productivity. Production and reproduction are reduced as a result of the extreme changes in biological functions affected by heat stress. Reduction of the negative effects of heat stress can be reduced or even eliminate those losses to improve its productivity has been attempted using different techniques including physical and nutritional means.
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