GPH - IJAR International Journal of Agriculture and Research http://gphjournal.org/index.php/ar <p style="font-family: Helvetica;">The scope of IJAR- Internatioanl Journal of Agriculture &amp; Research not limited to the following subject areas: Agronomy, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant pathology, Plant Science, Fertilizers and pesticides, Genetic Engineering &amp; plant breeding, Animal scienceVeterinary Science, Aquaculture/Fisheries, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural machinery, Post Harvest and Quality, Agricultural development, Agricultural Economics, Rural development, Sustainable Agriculture, Organic agriculture, Soil Conservation, Soil Science, Rainwater harvesting and crop water management, Crop Genetics &amp; Breeding, Tillage &amp; Cultivation Agricultural products – Raw Materials, Foods, Fibers, Fuels, Irrigation, Soil &amp; Fertilization.</p> GPH - International Journals en-US GPH - IJAR International Journal of Agriculture and Research <p>Author(s) and co-author(s)&nbsp;jointly&nbsp;and severally represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any&nbsp;copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published&nbsp;elsewhere.&nbsp;Author(s) agree to the terms that the <strong>GPH Journal</strong> will have the full right to remove the published article on any misconduct found in the published article.</p> IMPROVING FERTILITY OF ACID SULFATE SOIL USING VARIOUS LIME SOURCES FOR RICE GROWN IN MALAYSIA http://gphjournal.org/index.php/ar/article/view/373 <p>The main problems of acid sulfate soils are high acidity and Al and/or Fe toxicity to the soil. This problem causes rice root inhibition, hence retard plant nutrient uptake for its growth. Improving these conditions is important; hence, liming seems to be a common practice to ameliorate this soil, especially for rice cultivation. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of applying ground magnesium limestone (GML), hydrated lime and liquid lime on the growth of rice under glasshouse conditions. MR 219 rice variety was used in this experiment. It was found that the application of 4 t ha<sup>-1</sup> of GML had produced the highest rice yield of 8.2 t ha<sup>-1</sup> under glasshouse condition. The result showed that as panicle length increase, spikelet per panicle also increases. Relative rice yield is negatively correlated with the soil pH, and this indicates that as soil acidity increase (observed with pH between 2 to 3), the rice yield decreases and vice versa. At harvest, due to liming practices, the soil pH exceeded 6 for all the treatment. It was also observed that as soil exchangeable Ca increase, soil pH also increases. Among the treatment, soil treated with 2 t ha<sup>-1</sup> of hydrated lime gave the highest exchangeable Ca in the soil of 11.86 cmol<sub>c</sub> kg<sup>-1</sup> soil with Ca concentration of 0.12% in the root. It was observed that liming increases soil pH and exchangeable cations in the soil. Therefore, liming is essential to ameliorate the acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation.</p> Elisa Azura Azman J. Shamshuddin C.I. Fauziah I. Roslan Tajidin N. E. Uraiwan Tongkaemkaew ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 4 02 01 17 The Impacts of Drought Stress on Crop Production and Productivity http://gphjournal.org/index.php/ar/article/view/369 <p>Water stress due to drought is probably the most significant abiotic factor limiting plant and also crop growth and development. This paper reviewed the effect of drought stress on crop production from morphological to molecular levels, Drought resistance in crop plants, and managing drought stress by production of appropriate plant genotypes together with the adjustment of agronomic practice with the objectives; to review the impacts of drought stress on crop production and possible breeding method to improve crop response and to review different drought management mechanism of the crop. The effect of drought on yield is highly complex and involves processes as diverse as reproductive organs, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryogenesis, and seed development. Drought-induced yield reduction has been reported in many crop species, which depends upon the severity and duration of the stress period. Water stress during vegetative or early reproductive growth usually reduces yield by reducing the number of seeds in soybean and canola, Inmaize, water stress reduced yield by delaying silking, thus increasing the anthesis-to-silking interval. Plant drought tolerance can be managed by adopting strategies such as mass screening and breeding,marker-assisted selection and exogenous application of hormones seed priming osmoprotectants and using silicon tossed or growing plants, as well as engineering for drought resistance. Identification of drought-related quantitative trait loci (QTLs)coupled with marker-assisted selection has shown some positive results. Transgenic technologies promise to make progress in breeding for drought tolerance through a more fundamental understanding of underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance and identifying potential candidate genes. These new approaches provide opportunities to direct the continued breeding strategies of genotypes giving stable yields under drought stress.</p> Jember Mulugeta Bitew Shewayshitu . ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 4 02 18 38 Determinants of Household’s Willingness to Pay for Improved Mirt Stove in Cases of Semi Urban Areas of Gurage Zone: An Application of Contingent Valuation Method http://gphjournal.org/index.php/ar/article/view/370 <p><em>The households of Ethiopia mainly depend on biomass energy for their day to day activity. This dependency on biomass resource with traditional cook stove contribute to the depletion of environmental resource and health problem specially for women’s and children’s from indoor air pollution. From this the government has been encouraging the uses of improved cook stove technology at the household level. However, the uses of improved cook stove were very low. Hence, this study aims to estimate households WTP for improved Mirt stove and to identify factors that determine their WTP in semi urban areas of Gurage zone using Contingent valuation method and seemingly unrelated Bivariate Probit model. A sample of 251 households was randomly selected. The result of this study shows that households mean WTP is significantly influenced by bid price, monthly household income, family size, age, sex, marital status, environmental awareness, house ownership and availability of children under five year. The mean WTP for improved Mirt stove from the double bounded dichotomous choice format computed using the Krinsky Robb method was estimated to be 234.11 Birr and</em> <em>the total willingness to pay for improved Mirt stove is 3,561,281 birr. From the total surveyed households, 94.6% have shown their willingness to pay if there is an improvement in Mirt stove. Thus, the result can inspire the stakeholders those work in this area to invest for improving the current Mirt stove.</em></p> Aneteneh Ashebir Haile ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-03-11 2021-03-11 4 02 39 51