THE ROLE OF EXOPHYTIC AND ENDOPHYTIC MICROBES IN CONTROLLING FRUIT ROT DISEASE ON PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.
Pineapple rot disease is one of the most significant postharvest diseases caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (Penz.) Crous & Slippers, which can lead to substantial crop losses. There is a complex of microbes that may influence the growth and development of pineapple rot disease under natural conditions. This research was conducted to determine the role of exophytic and endophytic microbes in preventing pineapple rot. In healthy fruit, 45 isolates of exophytic fungi and 24 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from exophytes and endophytes, respectively. The dominant fruit exophytes of Thermasporomyces composti (Actinomycetes) were 15 isolates, while the dominant healthy fruit endophytes were as many as 12 isolates of Colletotrichum sp. Exophytes and endophytes were also found on healthy leaves, where the dominant exophytes were 45 isolates and the dominant endophytes were 24 isolates. Rhizopus sp. 36 and Rhizopus sp. 12 are both exophytes and endophytes. The diversity and dominance indices of fruit exophytic fungi were 1,767 and 0.800, respectively, while the diversity and dominance indices of fruit endophytic fungi were 1,386 and 0.6875, respectively. The diversity index for healthy leaf exophytes was 0,7201, with a dominance index of 0.3467, while the diversity index for endophytic microbes was 1.386, with a dominance index of 0.688. The inhibition of pathogens by fruit exophytic microbes ranged from 66.67 to 88.89 percent, with A. flavus1 achieving the highest level of 88.89 percent. Rhizopus sp. and Neurospora sp., both found in healthy leaf habitats, inhibit the growth of pathogens in vitro by 88.89%. A. flavus exhibited the most effective in vivo inhibition, with an percentage of inhibition of 3.8+1.39%.
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