The Impacts of Drought Stress on Crop Production and Productivity

  • Jember Mulugeta Bitew Researcher
  • Shewayshitu .
Keywords: Abiotic stress, Drought Resistance, MAS, Osmoprotectant, Seed priming, Transgenic, Yield loss

Abstract

Water stress due to drought is probably the most significant abiotic factor limiting plant and also crop growth and development. This paper reviewed the effect of drought stress on crop production from morphological to molecular levels, Drought resistance in crop plants, and managing drought stress by production of appropriate plant genotypes together with the adjustment of agronomic practice with the objectives; to review the impacts of drought stress on crop production and possible breeding method to improve crop response and to review different drought management mechanism of the crop. The effect of drought on yield is highly complex and involves processes as diverse as reproductive organs, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryogenesis, and seed development. Drought-induced yield reduction has been reported in many crop species, which depends upon the severity and duration of the stress period. Water stress during vegetative or early reproductive growth usually reduces yield by reducing the number of seeds in soybean and canola, Inmaize, water stress reduced yield by delaying silking, thus increasing the anthesis-to-silking interval. Plant drought tolerance can be managed by adopting strategies such as mass screening and breeding,marker-assisted selection and exogenous application of hormones seed priming osmoprotectants and using silicon tossed or growing plants, as well as engineering for drought resistance. Identification of drought-related quantitative trait loci (QTLs)coupled with marker-assisted selection has shown some positive results. Transgenic technologies promise to make progress in breeding for drought tolerance through a more fundamental understanding of underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance and identifying potential candidate genes. These new approaches provide opportunities to direct the continued breeding strategies of genotypes giving stable yields under drought stress.

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Author Biographies

Jember Mulugeta Bitew, Researcher

Debre Marekos Agricultural Research Center

Shewayshitu .

DbereMarekos Agricultural Research Centre

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Published
2021-03-08
How to Cite
Bitew, J. M., & ., S. (2021). The Impacts of Drought Stress on Crop Production and Productivity. GPH - IJAR International Journal of Agriculture and Research, 4(02), 18-38. Retrieved from http://gphjournal.org/index.php/ar/article/view/369