• Dr. Geoffrey Amanze NKWOCHA Ph.D
  • Nwachukwu, M.O.
Keywords: Additives, proximate composition, mineral constituents, pig dung


This study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria to evaluate the effects of additives on proximate and mineral composition of pig dung. Dung were collected fresh from three different piggery farms in Imo State, homogenized at the experimental site and stored for 48 hours for bacterial activities. The treatment involved four chemicals which included borax, carbide, Dry cell battery and kerosene applied at three concentration levels of 50, 100 and 150 g respectively. The proximate and mineral analysis of the treated and untreated pig dung were assayed for the determination of the crude protein, the ether extract, ash, moisture content, crude fibre and nitrogen free extracts while the minerals evaluated are the calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus.

 Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), at 5% probability level. The result of the study indicated that the chemical treatment of the pig dung decreased the crude protein content and hence reduced the generation and release of green house gases into the environment. Moreover, moderate correlations observed from the additives indicated that increase in the concentration of borax, carbide and kerosene will not reduce the presence of these macro and micro elements in the dung thus fertility of the soil when applied is ensured.  It is therefore concluded that additives can be used in the swine industry to solve monumental waste challenges since after treatment, the bioavailability of nutrients notably nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are not negatively affected.  It was therefore recommended that additives be used to solve monumental waste challenges in the swine industry.


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Author Biographies


Department of Animal Production and Health Technology, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Ohaji, PMB 1472 ,Owerri, Nigeria.

Dr. Geoffrey Amanze NKWOCHA, Ph.D

Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Science Tech, Bayelsa State College of Arts and Science, Yenagoa, Nigeria.      


Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Science Tech, Bayelsa State College of Arts and Science, Yenagoa, Nigeria.

Nwachukwu, M.O.

Department of Biology, Parasitology and Entomology Unit, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.


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How to Cite
K.U., A., NKWOCHA, D. G., O.I., P., & M.O., N. (2021). THE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF ADDITIVES ON PROXIMATE AND MINERAL CONSTITUENTS OF PIG DUNG FOR SUSTAINABLE PIG PRODUCTION. GPH-International Journal of Agriculture and Research E-ISSN 2805-4362 P-ISSN 2805-4340, 4(01), 01-09. Retrieved from